Native Plant of the Month: Western Hemlock

Photo of Western Hemlock.

Common Name: Western Hemlock 

Binomial Name: Tsuga heterphylla 

Soil Type: Prefers moist, acidic soil 

Sunlight: Very shade-tolerant 

Plant Type: Medium to large tree 

Form: Cone to cylindrical shape 

Foliage: Evergreen 

Fruit/Flower: Cones

The largest species of hemlock and the state tree of Washington, the Western Hemlock is a common and beautiful tree in the Pacific Northwest. Most of the tree’s native range in less than 100 km from the ocean and is of great importance in timber and paper production. It’s popular as a large ornamental tree, but is also used as a food source; the bark and needles can be eaten or made into tea. Even the boughs are used to collect herring eggs, the foliage creating an ideal surface for the eggs to attach to, as well as providing a distinct taste. 

Though the form (overall shape) of the Western Hemlock changes from cone-shaped to more cylindrical with age, it is distinguishable at all ages by the pendulous branchlet tips, giving it a more graceful appearance. The small leaves look like needles, 5-22 mm long and 1.5-2 mm wide. They are mid to dark green with two distinct white stripes (stomata) on the underside. The cones are also small and delicate, 14-30 mm long with thin, flexible scales. 

This Native Plant of the Month has been brought to you by the City of Beaverton’s Landscape and Urban Forestry Department along with Clean Water Services. Visit Clean Water Service’s Native Plant Finder webpage for interactive questions to help you find the right native plant to fit your needs!